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      化學所在新型低成本非貴金屬電解水催化劑研究方面取得系列進展
      2019-05-13 | 編輯:lidan | 【 】【打印】【關閉

        氫能是一種理想的能源載體,開發大規模、廉價、清潔、高效的制氫技術是氫能有效利用的關鍵。電解水由于環境友好、產品純度高以及無碳排放而成為具有應用前景的綠色制氫方法之一。限制電解水制氫大規模應用的最重要瓶頸是如何大幅降低其電能消耗,因而大幅降低制氫成本。其關鍵是發展廉價、易制備的高性能非貴金屬電解水催化劑,有效降低電極上析氧反應(OER)和析氫反應(HER)的過電位,實現在低槽壓下的大電流產氫。 

        在國家自然科學基金委、科技部和中國科學院的支持下中科院化學所分子納米結構與納米技術院重點實驗室胡勁松課題組致力于高性能非貴金屬電催化劑的設計、可控構筑與催化機制研究。他們近年在非貴金屬電解水催化劑高本征活性位點的設計與調控、高密度高活性有效催化位點的設計與可控構筑、基元反應導向的高活性位點組合設計、高速傳荷與傳質的三維網絡結構電極設計等方面取得了系列進展(ACS Nano201610, 851; J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2017, 139, 8320; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2017, 56, 6572; Adv. Mater. 2017, 29, 1703311; Adv. Sci., 2017, 4, 1700084; Adv. Energy Mater. 2018, 8, 1800734; Adv. Energy Mater. 2018, 8, 1801698; Adv. Funct. Mater. 2018, 28, 1704594; Small Methods 2019, 3, 1800317)。近期,他們發展了一種新的原位電化學轉化策略,通過原位非金屬Se摻雜實現了低成本、高性能的鐵基析氧電解水催化劑,相關結果發表于J. Am. Chem. Soc.2019141, 7005,并入選雜志封面。 

        因與析氧反應中間物種合適的吸脫附能力,鎳和鈷通常是高性能OER催化劑必不可少的組分。雖然鐵元素遠比鎳與鈷儲量豐富,價格低廉得多,但目前鐵基催化劑析氧性能遠低于鎳與鈷基材料。研究人員首先借助理論計算揭示非金屬Se摻雜可以顯著改善全鐵基FeOOH催化劑的電化學析氧決速步驟。基于此,發展了一種簡便的原位電化學活化策略,通過在OER條件下將三維導電低成本泡沫鐵基底上原位生長的FeSe垂直納米片陣列原位電化學活化轉化為Se摻雜的FeOOH納米片陣列,使該全鐵基催化劑同時具有高本征活性位點和高的電化學活性面積,因此表現出與全鎳或全鈷催化劑性能相當的OER電催化活性。該策略同樣適用于少量鎳摻雜的富鐵催化劑的制備,使少量鎳(3.3 at%)摻雜的富鐵催化劑可以實現與最佳富鎳或富鈷催化劑相媲美的電催化OER性能。在電流密度500 mA cm-2時的過電位僅需348 mV,并具有優異的穩定性。將該催化劑作應用于電解水裝置,電流密度50 mA cm-2時的槽壓僅需1.62V。在實際太陽光驅動的水分解系統中,所述催化劑實現了18.55%的太陽光到氫氣的最高轉換效率之一。這些結果表明所述策略為開發新的儲量豐富、經濟、高效的電解水電催化劑提供了一種可能的途徑 J. Am. Chem. Soc.2019141, 7005  

        原位轉化Se摻雜策略構筑低成本、高效鐵基析氧催化劑 

          

        分子納米結構與納米技術院重點實驗室 

          2019513      

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